Chinese officials said the taxes – expected to be up to 220 per cent – were an anti-dumping measures.
Exporters of wine related to the anti-dumping rules will need to pay tax to China’s customs authority, officials said.
The trade sanctions come after China announced last year it would impose temporary tariffs on wine from Australia from November 28 for four months, but warned they could be extended.
The Australian wine industry is expected to ask the Federal Government to approach World Trade Organisation (WTO) for help.
The latest trade sanctions against Australian exporters come after relations between Beijing and Canberra plummeted over the last year.
Exports including coal, barley, beef, lobster and timber were hit with tariffs and other sanctions.
They came after Australia called for an international investigation into the origins of the coronavirus pandemic and the Federal Government introduced foreign interference legislation.
Earlier this week, Federal Government officials told Senate Estimates the value of Australian trade with China for nearly all industries has declined by 40 per cent since the trade dispute intensified.
Wine exports had dropped to less than $1 million in January, from a high of $164 million last October.